The apple succeeds over a wider territory than any other temperate climate fruit; it offers wider opportunity for utility than any other fruit, and it can be put to a larger variety of uses than any =other. Some varieties do better on one kind of soil than other varieties will, but in general apples will succeed well on almost all soils, where agricultural crops are grown. A rather strong, loamy soil, ranging between sandy and clayey soils, should be given the preference, especially where the ground is rather high. Some few varieties do well on extremes, but these cases are rare. Soils rich in humus are not desirable, since they are likely to produce too much wood growth, but a reason-able amount of humus is necessary. This is easiest secured by plowing under a clover sod and by using an annual cover crop of crimson clover, cow peas, or vetches In special cases the ground may be allowed to stand in grass and mowed once or twice a season, but generally this practice is not looked upon with favor. Clean culture is the more desirable way of Managing the apple as a rule.
Most standard varieties should be set 40 to 50 feet apart. Smaller growing standards may be set as close as 30 feet, but usually this is not good practice, because the trees are likely to interfere with one another. Such trees are used as fillers and cut out when they begin to interfere with the permanent trees. By the term ” filler ” is meant a quick-maturing variety of small growth Which bears for several years before the permanent trees come into profitable bearing. The danger with fillers is that they are too often allowed to stand after they begin to interfere with the standards.
Still smaller trees are used occasionally for filling in between the fillers. These are known as dwarfs. They have been grown more or less for 50 years, but only recently have they attratted the attention of commercial orchardists. See Mr. Powell’s article on page 59.
Among the hundreds of varieties it is difficult to select a list that will suit all conditions and requirements. The following sorts are well adapted for home use and local markets and many of them are general market favorites. They cover the whole season.
Early Yellow Transparent, Early Harvest, Primate, Early Joe, Red Astrachan, Oldenburg, Chenango, Sweet Bough, Gravenstein, and Porter. These cover the season in the latitude of central New York, from about the middle of July until the middle of September. They furnish a considerable choice of flavors from rather acid to deliciously sweet. For home use at least one tree of each should be in every good-sized orchard.
Autumn Maiden Blush, Fameuse, Fall Pippin, St Lawrence, Wealthy, and Hawley. These carry on the season well from mid-September until mid-November.
Winter Mackintosh, Jonathan, Hubbardston, Grimes Golden, Tompkins King, Wagener, Bald-win, Yellow Bellflower, Tolman Sweet, Northern Spy, and Roxbury Russet will furnish a succession from mid-November until May, or even June, with good storage, as described on another page.
Farther south, Yellow Transparent, Red Astra-chan, Benoni, Oldenburg, Gravenstein, Haas, Maiden Blush, Rambo, Pecks Pleasant, Smith Cider, Hubbardston, Grimes Golden, Jonathan, and Winesap will furnish a good succession for the apple season.
In the northwest, Yellow Transparent, Tetofski, Oldenburg, Fameuse, Fameuse, Wealthy, and Golden Russet are recommended.